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The forgotten mothers of civil rights leaders

Anna Malaika Tubbs shines a light on how Martin Luther King Jr, Malcolm X and James Baldwin were influenced by their mothers

Anna Malaika Tubbs shines a light on how Martin Luther King Jr, Malcolm X and James Baldwin were influenced by their mothers

Martin Luther King Jr, Malcolm X and James Baldwin are often remembered as change-makers who came into the world with their political ideas fully-formed – but this was far from the case. As Anna Malaika Tubbs reveals in her new book Three Mothers, the mothers of these civil rights leaders shaped their activism and taught their sons to resist racism.

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Anna Malaika Tubbs is the author of Three Mothers: How the Mothers of Martin Luther King Jr, Malcolm X and James Baldwin Shaped a Nation (HarperCollins, 2021)


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