1831: Physicist and mathematician James Clerk Maxwell was born in Edinburgh. Considered one of the most influential scientists of the 19th century, he was particularly known for his theory of electromagnetism.
1978: After handing over their positions to the Christian and associated militias they had been backing, Israeli troops completed their withdrawal from south Lebanon.
1809: John Dickens, an assistant clerk in the navy pay office at Portsmouth, married Elizabeth Barrow, the daughter of a senior official in the office. Charles, their second child, was born in Portsmouth two-and-a-half years later.