The medieval period witnessed a great advancement in military tactics, with the powerful longbow and the trebuchet becoming prominent weapons on the battlefield.

Here, we round up some of the best depictions of medieval battles…

A detail from the Bayeux tapestry, showing knights in battle. The 11th-century French tapestry depicts the battle of Hastings and William the Conqueror’s Norman invasion of England in 1066.

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Mounted knights are unhorsed and killed during hand-to-hand fighting in this 15th-century depiction of a battle during the First Crusade, c1096–99.

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A 13th-century stained glass window from Soissons Cathedral, Picardy. This detail shows the invasion of Rheims by the Vandals.

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A 14th-century image of the siege of Antioch, 1097-98. The Muslim-held city (located in modern-day Turkey) came under attack during the First Crusade.

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Image from around 1275 showing a knight of the crusades kneeling in homage. His elaborate helmet is being held above his head.

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A portrayal of a battle between crusaders and Saracens in the 12th century. From the Historia, a manuscript from around the 1460s, by the prelate and chronicler William of Tyre.

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A knight of the Knights Templar charges into battle. From a late 12th-century fresco in the Chapel of the Templars, Cressac sur Charente, France.

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Drawing depicting crusaders attacking a Moorish castle, date unknown.

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A war elephant crushing an enemy soldier during the Second Crusade. From a 15th-century fresco in St Cassian Cathedral, Brixen, Italy.

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The English defeat the French at the battle of Sluys in 1340. The sea-battle was one of the opening conflicts of the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453).

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The conquest of Jerusalem, depicted in a miniature. From a 12th to 13th-century French bible from the Abbey of Mont Saint Eloi.

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The battle of Crécy (1346), which was a significant victory for the English during the Hundred Years’ War. This image was found in the 14th-century Chronicles of Jean Froissart.

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Depiction of a naval battle, from around 1340. Found in the collection of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France.

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The battle of Agincourt in 1415. Depicted in a miniature from a 15th-century English manuscript.

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The battle of Nancy in 1477, as depicted in the memoires of Philippe de Commynes (1445–1511).

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