Medieval medicine: killer or cure?

In the modern imagination, quack remedies and painful, futile surgery awaited those unlucky enough to fall ill in the Middle Ages. Yet, argues Elma Brenner, our ancestors had a far more sophisticated appreciation of their health than you might think

A doctor examines a patient's urine in an illustration from the 13th century. Uroscopy, the study of urine, was one of the medieval physician's most effective tools, and is still employed today. (Photo by Bridgman Art Library)

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