The mother of Great Britain: Queen Anne
Queen Anne (1665–1714) is remembered as an ineffective monarch, one beset by illness and shyness and dependent on court favourites. More recent biographies have revised that view, recognising the flourishing of culture during her reign, as well as the important constitutional and political moments she oversaw – not least of which was the 1707 Acts of Union, aligning the kingdoms of England and Scotland in a single sovereign state, Great Britain.
This article was first published in the January 2019 issue of BBC History Magazine. To read the full feature by Hannah Greig, click here, or to read more from the issue, click here
The ‘she-dictator’ Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough
Born into Hertfordshire gentry, Sarah Churchill (1660–1744) found her way to power through a childhood friendship with the future Queen Anne, and marriage to John Churchill, who would become a military hero. Emerging as Duke and Duchess of Marlborough, they had extraordinary political influence. After she lost her posts at court, Sarah retained a foothold in Whig politics as the matriarch of an expansive family, who were smoothly matched off to aristocrats, MPs and ministers.
The shadowy ‘insinuator’ Elizabeth Seymour, Duchess of Somerset
The Duchess of Somerset (1667–1722) was a powerful player in the politics of Queen Anne’s court. The writer Jonathan Swift warned that behind her courtly manners lay “a most insinuating woman”, and she was regarded by many as a behind-the-scenes protagonist who helped bring down the Marlboroughs. She was made lady of the bedchamber in 1702. Despite the rise of Abigail Masham – a favourite in the court of Queen Anne – it was Somerset who replaced Marlborough in the key position of groom of the stole.
The power broker: Elizabeth Hervey, Countess of Bristol
Seventeen children and a husband who preferred horse races at Newmarket to Westminster debates did not stop Hervey (1676–1741) making her mark in politics. She courted the Marlboroughs and Queen Anne to find court posts and empty parliamentary seats for her brood. She and her MP husband were elevated to the peerage, first as baron and lady in 1703 and then earl and countess in 1714, and produced a dynasty of often eccentric Whig MPs and courtiers.
The devastating satirist: Delarivier Manley
Often described as the first political journalist, Manley (c1670–1724) was a writer who wielded her pen as a weapon in the early 1700s. Her 1709 novel New Atalantis satirised contemporary debate with devastating attacks on Whig politicians. It led to her arrest for libel, but she argued her work was a fiction – making it impossible for her victims to punish her, since they would have proven themselves the ugly characters she portrayed.
Hannah Greig is a senior lecturer in early modern history at the University of York. She was a historical advisor on The Favourite, which is out in UK cinemas this month.