12 March 1612

King James VI and I granted the Virginia Company of London a third royal charter, extending its American territories to include Bermuda. The move gave more control to ordinary investors and allowed the company to run a lottery to raise funds.


12 March 1507

Cesare Borgia is killed at the siege of Viana in Navarre.

12 March 1613

Birth in Paris of landscape gardener André Le Nôtre. As principal gardener of King Louis XIV of France he was responsible for designing the gardens at the Palais de Versailles.

12 March 1836

Mrs Isabella Beeton was born at Cheapside, London – the eldest of 21 children. She died young, succumbing at the age of 28 to puerperal fever contracted from the doctor who delivered her fourth baby. Yet in her short life, she turned the attainment of happy domesticity into an art form – most notably through Beeton's Book of Household Management. Boasting some 2,000 recipes, this book was soon widely regarded as an indispensable guide to running a Victorian household. Though Isabella and her husband, Sam, lived in relative poverty, Beeton's writings give the impression of a lady of superior breeding, someone with an intimate knowledge of Victorian etiquette.

12 March 1881

Demerera born Queen's Park full-back Andrew Watson became the world's first black footballer to play at international level when he represented Scotland in a 6-1 win over England at the Kennington Oval.

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12 March 1889

Philip Guedalla, historian, is born in Maida Vale, London. The Duke, his 1931 biography of Wellington, is one of a number of books that will make him one of inter-war Britain's most popular historical writers.

12 March 1930

Ghandi began his campaign of satyagraha or non-violent civil disobedience against British rule by leading a march to Dandi to make salt from seawater in defiance of an act which prohibited Indians from collecting or selling salt.


12 March 1938

Greeted by cheering crowds, German troops cross the German-Austrian border to secure Anchluss (union) with Austria. The union, which defies the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, is confirmed in a plebiscite held in the following month.

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