4 November 1583

The Catholic conspirator Francis Throckmorton is arrested for his part in a plot to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I. He will confess under torture and be executed in the following July.


4 November 1631

Birth at St James's Palace, London, of Mary, the eldest daughter of Charles I and Henrietta Maria. She was married to William II, Prince of Orange at the age of nine. In 1650 she gave birth to the future King William III of England.

4 November 1677

Mary Stuart marries her cousin, William of Orange.

4 November 1740

Birth in Farnham, Surrey, of Anglican clergyman and hymn-writer Augustus Montague Toplady. His best-known hymn, Rock of Ages, was published in 1776.

4 November 1839: Chaos ensues in the Newport Rising

Broiling tensions erupt into violence in south Wales

In the late 1830s, south Wales was not a happy place. Thousands lived in grinding poverty, while the government’s rejection of the People’s Charter of 1838 – which demanded the right to vote for working men – had provoked intense political discontent. In May 1839, the Chartist leader Henry Vincent had been arrested in Monmouth, and his conviction and imprisonment later that summer inflamed local opinion. By early November 1839, Welsh radicals were ready to move – and so began the last armed rebellion in British history.

Sunday 3 November was a day of rising tension. Down the valleys streamed thousands of marchers, although pouring rain meant that the turnout was smaller than the organisers had hoped for. In Newport, the authorities, anticipating trouble, swore in 500 special constables and stationed dozens of soldiers at the Westgate Hotel, where they were reported to be holding Chartist prisoners. But it was not until the small hours of the next morning that the Chartist march, now at least 7,000 strong, arrived in the town.

What followed was bedlam. Having divided into two vast streams, the crowd reunited in front of the Westgate Hotel, where the guests would usually have been eating breakfast. After a great deal of shouting and cheering, they promptly laid siege to the hotel. Gunshots echoed back and forth between armed demonstrators and the soldiers within: “Nothing,” one observer told The Times, “can heighten the horror of the scene at this moment.” The town’s mayor, who attempted to read the Riot Act, was badly wounded by Chartist musket-fire, but the soldiers' superior discipline and firepower won the day. By the time the radicals fell back, 22 had been killed and dozens were injured. The rising’s leaders were sentenced to death by hanging and quartering, commuted to transportation to Tasmania for life. Newport’s mayor, however, ended up with a knighthood. | Written by Dominic Sandbrook


4 November 1979

Militant Islamic students took 66 Americans hostage after storming the US embassy in Teheran. Two weeks later 13 women and African-Americans were freed and a 14th was released in July 1980. The remaining 52 were held until January 1981.

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