Q: Who were the gladiators of ancient Rome?
A: Most gladiators were purchased from slave markets, being chosen for their strength, stamina and good looks, says Dr Miles Russell. Although taken from the lowest elements of society, the gladiator was a breed apart from the ‘normal’ slave or prisoner of war, being well-trained combatants whose one role in life was to fight and occasionally to kill for the amusement of the Roman mob.
Not all those who fought as gladiators were slaves or convicts, however. Some were citizens down on their luck (or heavily in debt) while some, like the emperor Commodus, simply did it for ‘fun’.
Whatever their reasons for ending up in the arena, gladiators were adored by the Roman public for their bravery and spirit. Their images appeared frequently in mosaics, wall paintings and on glassware and pottery.
Q: Did people have to pay to see gladiators fight in ancient Rome?
A: The Roman games of gladiatorial combat and animal hunts were great spectacles put on by senators, businessmen and later solely by emperors, in order to win the affection and favour of the masses. From the importation and feeding of exotic animals to the maintenance of warrior gladiators, the cost of laying on such events was immense. But the hosts understood that the masses required entertainment to distract them from the grinding realities of life.
The inaugural games at the Colosseum, for example, lasted for 100 days in AD 80, and were entirely paid for by Emperor Titus. All tickets were freely allocated (by lottery) to the citizens of ancient Rome. The nature of the audience was strictly regulated, though, with the best seats in the house going to the wealthy and upper classes.
Q: What was life like for a gladiator in ancient Rome?
A: Until the discovery of the cities of Vesuvius in the 18th century, virtually everything we knew about gladiators came from references in ancient texts, from random finds of stone sculptures and inscriptions, and the impressive structures of the amphitheatres dotted about all over the Roman empire, writes Tony Wilmott.
Gladiators were at the bottom of the heap in Roman society. This remained the case no matter how much they were feted by the people. Above most qualities, the Romans valued ‘virtus’, which meant, first and foremost, acting in a brave and soldierly fashion. In the manner of his fighting, and above all in his quiet and courageous acceptance of death, even a gladiator, a despised slave, could display this.
Gladiators were divided into categories – each armed and attired in a characteristic manner – and were then pitched against one another in pairings designed to show a variety of forms of combat.
Q: How popular was gladiatorial fighting in ancient Rome?
A: Not as popular as you might think, says Dr Harry Sidebottom. The seating capacity of the main venues formed a ‘rough and ready’ index of the popularity of the different public shows in Rome. The arena for gladiatorial combat, the Colosseum – known in antiquity as the Flavian Amphitheatre – was huge. Modern archaeologists estimate that it could accommodate 50,000 people. One ancient source put the number even higher, at 87,000.
Yet it was dwarfed by the Circus Maximus, where some 250,000 could watch chariot racing. Despite the popularity of pantomime (closer to our ballet than modern panto), theatrical shows came off a poor third. The largest theatre in Rome, that of Marcellus, could hold a mere 20,500.
Read on to find out more about famous gladiators of ancient Rome…
Amazon and Achillia
Female gladiators were often a source of amusement for the Roman mob – they were usually matched against dwarves or animals, in semi-pornographic comedy fights. However, the fight between these two women survives as an interesting example of a serious female contest. Their names refer to the mythical conflict between the god Achilles and the queen of the Amazon warrior tribe. An ancient marble relief, now in the British Museum, shows that these two women fought well and respectably, and were both granted their freedom at the end of it.
This relief of the two women commemorates the granting of their freedom. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)
Played by Joaquin Phoenix in 2000’s Gladiator, here was an emperor who not only enjoyed watching fights to the death, he actively participated in them. A narcissistic tyrant, he was known to maim and injure the people and animals he was pitted against, or give his opponents wooden swords, making him unpopular with the Roman crowds. Each time he won, he awarded himself one million silver coins. He met a grisly end when he was assassinated in AD 192, partly motivated by his ridiculous antics as a gladiator.
Did you know?
Joaquin Phoenix took the role very seriously. To prepare, he gained weight, altered his complexion, and even kept a sword in his hotel room
A volunteer, Attilius probably took up work as a gladiator to pay off his hefty debts. Luckily, he managed to find his true calling in the arena. In his first battle, despite being faced against a man who had won 12 out of 14 fights, the debtor not only defeated his opponent, he repeated the feat in the next contest – where his opponent had also won 12 out of 14 battles, earning Attilius a lot of admiration and following.
Exotic animals, such as lions, were transported from Rome’s faraway provinces. (Photo By DEA / G. DAGLI ORTI/De Agostini via Getty Images)
Gladiators were usually slaves, and Flamma came from the faraway province of Syria. However, the fighting lifestyle seemed to suit him well – he was offered his freedom four times, after winning 21 battles, but refused it and continued to entertain the crowds of the Colosseum (right) until he died aged 30. His face was even used on coins.
Arguably the most famous Roman gladiator, this tough fighter led a massive slave rebellion. After being enslaved and put through gladiator training school, an incredibly brutal place, he and 78 others revolted against their master Batiatus using only kitchen knives. The movement eventually accumulated 70,000 followers, pillaging towns across Italy. Spartacus attempted to lead his rowdy band back home to their native lands, but they preferred to stay and increase their ill-gotten gains. The Roman legions eventually defeated and crucified thousands of them, and Spartacus was killed in battle in 71 BC.
Did you know?
Being mauled by a wild beast in the arena was used as a punishment for ‘enemies of the state’, including war prisoners and criminal slaves
This friend of the notorious Emperor Nero definitely received some preferential treatment. Spiculus was one of his favourite gladiators, a real crowd-pleaser and showman. Nero gave him vast wealth, palaces and land, and when the evil Emperor was overthrown in AD 68, Nero asked to die by the hand of Spiculus, a man he clearly respected. However, the gladiator was nowhere to be found, so Nero took his own life.
Priscus and Verus
These two were frequently rivals in the arena, and have been immortalised by the poet Martial. He writes that after hours of combat, putting on a great show for the crowd, the pair laid down their swords at the same time – leaving their fate in the hands of the audience, who could decide whether the fighters lived or died by putting their thumbs up or down, at the request of the Emperor. Touched by their good sportsmanship, Emperor Titus allowed both men to walk away from the battle as free men, a completely unique and unexpected outcome.
Titus hosted the inaugural games to celebrate the completion of the Colosseum in AD 80, which lasted 100 days. (Photo By DEA / G. DAGLI ORTI/De Agostini via Getty Images)
Gladiators battled with wild animals, as well as each other, though most of this type were merely ill-equipped criminals sentenced to death by beast. A rare example of a successful ‘bestiarius’ was Carpophorus, who allegedly killed 20 animals in one day, including a lion, bear and leopard in a single battle. He also managed to spear a rhinoceros to death. The public started comparing him to the god Hercules, which he gladly played up to.
Tetraites had previously been lost to history, until graffiti in Pompeii, discovered in 1817, revealed his tale. He fought bare-chested with a sword, a flat shield and only basic armour. Popular across the empire, memorabilia (such as glass vessels) detailing his battle with fellow gladiator Prudes was uncovered in places as far away as France and England.
This Gaul was Spartacus’s right-hand man. Helping him to transform their band of rebels from slaves to savvy soldiers, Crixus fought alongside him, earning his trust and respect along the way – although they split up just before Spartacus wished to leave Italy. When Crixus was killed in battle in 72 BC, Spartacus ordered the slaughter of 300 Roman soldiers in his honour.
This article was first published in the February 2017 edition of BBC History Revealed