9 July 1412
Thomas of Lancaster, the second son of King Henry IV of England, was created Duke of Clarence. He and his elder brother, Henry, were rivals during their father’s lifetime but when Henry became king, Clarence became an enthusiastic supporter of his military endeavours, raising one of the largest contingents for the 1415 invasion of France and playing a leading role in the captures of Caen, Alencon, Falaise and Rouen. In early 1421 Clarence was given command of English forces in France but was killed when he ill-advisedly attacked a larger Franco-Scottish force at Baugé.
9 July 1793
The legislative assembly of Upper Canada passed the Act Against Slavery. This stated that no new slaves could be brought into Upper Canada, and that children subsequently born to slaves would be freed when they reached the age of 25.
9 July 1810
After forcing his brother, Louis Bonaparte, to abdicate the Dutch throne, Napoleon annexed the kingdom of Holland to the French empire.
9 July 1877
The world’s first tennis tournament opens at the All England Club, Wimbledon. The title was won by Spencer Gore.
9 July 1931
Dublin-born racing driver Kaye Don drove the Miss England II powerboat to a new world water speed record of 110.22 miles per hour on Lake Garda, Italy.