1961: To stem the flow of refugees from the West, the East German authorities closed the border between East and West Berlin. Berlin would remain divided until 1989.
1704: French and Bavarian forces were routed by a combined British, German and Dutch army at the battle of Blenheim.
1809: English physician, botanist, JP and social reformer William Penny Brookes was born in Much Wenlock, Shropshire. Brookes went on to found the Shropshire Olympian games and the National Olympian Society. His games were visited in 1890 by Barron Pierre de Coubertin, who later credited Brookes for inspiring him to found the International Olympic Committee in 1894.