1812: The United States declared war on Great Britain. Hostilities were to continue until early 1815, although the Treaty of Ghent ending the war was actually signed in December of the previous year.
1511: Architect and sculptor Bartolomeo Ammannati was born at Settigano near Florence. One of his most celebrated works was the Ponte Santa Trinita over the Arno in Florence.
1757: Frederick the Great of Prussia was defeated by the Austrians at the battle of Kolin.