1643: King Louis XIII of France dies in Paris, and is succeeded by his four-year-old son, Louis XIV. Despite the late king’s wishes to limit her role, his widow, Anne of Austria, had herself declared regent, co-ruling the country with her chief minister, cardinal Jules Mazarin.
1832: Birth in Sheffield, Yorkshire of notorious cat burglar, Charles Peace. Between 1872 and 1878 he performed a series of daring burglaries but was eventually arrested and hanged for murder.
1961: A Freedom Rider bus was firebombed outside Anniston, Alabama. A second bus arrived in Birmingham where passengers were beaten up by Ku Klux Klan members. Throughout May 1961 black and white Freedom Riders rode sitting together in buses throughout the southern United States. Their aim was to draw attention to the flouting of a Supreme Court ruling that racial segregation on public transportation was illegal under the terms of the Interstate Commerce Act.
1610: Henry IV of France was stabbed to death by Francois Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic. Henry was succeeded by his son, Louis XIII. Ravaillac was convicted of treason and pulled apart by four horses.
1509: Louis XII of France crushes a Venetian mercenary army at the battle of Agnadello. Machiavelli will later discuss the battle in Il Principe, and comments that in one day the Venetians lost what it had taken them 800 years to conquer.