1958: Baroness Swanborough (Stella Isaacs, Marchioness of Reading) became the first woman to take her seat in the House of Lords. During the Second World War she had founded the Women’s Voluntary Service.
1600: The largely eastern Japanese forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu defeated their western rivals at the battle of Sekigahara. It was a major step in the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate, which ruled Japan for more than 250 years.
1422: Following the death of his grandfather, Charles VI, the 10-month-old Henry VI of England became King of France according to the terms of the Treaty of Troyes. He had succeeded to the English throne two months earlier.