1911: Winston Churchill was appointed first lord of the Admiralty. He did much to prepare the Royal Navy for a modern war but was removed from the post in 1915 after the failure of the Dardanelles campaign which he himself proposed.
1642: In the first major battle of the English Civil War, the armies of King Charles I and the Earl of Essex clashed at Edgehill in Warwickshire. The battle was largely indecisive, although the royalists ended the day in control of the road to London.
1900: Cricketer Douglas Jardine was born in Bombay, India. He is best remembered for his captaincy on the 1932/33 ‘Bodyline’ Ashes tour where his uncompromising use of short pitched bowling proved too much for an increasingly disgruntled Australian team.
Compiled by Julian Humphrys – You can follow Julian on Twitter @GeneralJules