1938: Establishment by Royal Warrant of the female branch of the Second World War British army – the Auxiliary Territorial Service, or ATS. The original scheme envisaged the recruitment of 20,000 volunteers, but at its peak during the war some 200,000 women were serving in its ranks. The first recruits were employed as cooks, clerks, telephonists and storekeepers, but members of the ATS also served as drivers, radar operators, and alongside men in anti-aircraft units. Notable members included the future Queen Elizabeth II, as a driver and engineer, and Mary Churchill, the youngest daughter of the prime minister.
1689: Death of Jane Lane, Lady Fisher. In 1651, following his defeat at the battle of Worcester, Charles II had posed as her servant to escape his parliamentarian pursuers.