23 September 1162
Pope Alexander III met Henry II of England and Louis VII of France and secured their recognition of his authority. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa continued to support alternative ‘antipopes’ for a further 15 years.
23 September 1861
Birth in Albeck near Ulm in southern Germany of industrialist and inventor Robert Bosch. In 1897 Bosch developed a magneto for a motor vehicle, and in 1902 his company developed the first commercially successful spark plug.
23 September 1909
The French newspaper Le Gaulois carries the first instalment of a new story by Gaston Leroux, set two decades earlier in the sumptuous, haunted world of the Palais Garnier opera house. The story takes its title from its most famous character: The Phantom of the Opera.