How much of Netflix drama The Crown is drawn from real history? The show, which takes viewers behind the closed doors of royal life, undoubtedly strays into the realms of supposition on occasion. But much of the action is drawn the very real personal and political challenges that beset many members of the British royal family in the 20th and into the 21st century.


From season one, which dramatised Queen Elizabeth II’s ascension and the early days of her reign with Claire Foy as the young monarch, to the middle seasons with Olivia Colman playing the Queen as the matriarch of a growing royal brood, and into the final stage of the story with Imelda Staunton as the late monarch, The Crown has provided an intimate and dramatic portrayal of many figures at the heart of the modern monarchy.

Season 5 of Peter Morgan’s drama welcomed a new cast, with Imelda Staunton portraying the late Queen Elizabeth II from the early 1990s onwards.

Season 5 was the first season to be broadcast following the deaths of the Duke of Edinburgh on 9 April 2021, and Queen Elizabeth II on 8 September 2022.

Read on for our breakdown of the real history that has inspired each season, and where the drama chooses to diverge from real events – plus don’t miss our episode-by-episode guides

More like this

(Note: this article contains spoilers for seasons 1–6 of The Crown)

Follow the links below to jump to each section:

What's the real history behind The Crown season 6?

The latest season of The Crown continues to walk the tightrope that faced the drama in season 5. As historian Sarah Gristwood previously told us: “As The Crown moves into the 1990s, it was always going to have a hard row to hoe."

The events of those years, she writes, “are at once too shocking and too familiar,” writes Gristwood. “What seemed pleasurably entertaining when the events depicted were safely in the past seems tone deaf once they come within the collective living memory."

Figures who are dramatized on screen have voiced reservations, including former prime minister John Major. “Tony Blair (who succeeded Major as PM in 1997) has likewise declared the portrayal of his relationship with the royals as lacking any validity, and former minister Michael Heseltine declared it was “important” that they spoke out,” wrote Gristwood. The debate has become as much the story as anything we see on screen.

The paparazzi interest in Diana – particularly in the summer months of 1997, before her death, aged 36, in a car crash in Paris – is the central subject of The Crown’s opening four episodes.

Elizabeth Debicki as Diana, Princess of Wales in 'The Crown' (left) and Princess Diana touring an
Elizabeth Debicki as Diana, Princess of Wales in 'The Crown' (left) and Princess Diana touring an Angolan minefield in a flak jacket, during a Red Cross visit to the country. (Images by Des Willie/Netflix/Getty Images)

Previous seasons of the drama have traced and foreshadowed this escalating paparazzi interest, from the press ‘discovering’ Princess Margaret’s relationship with Group Captain Peter Townsend in season one, to Charles and Diana’s 1983 royal tour of Australia and the start of ‘Dianamania’ in season four, and the ‘War of the Waleses’ that played out in the press in season 5.

Season six, part one dramatises Diana’s final months, characterised by the fraught balancing act of managing very public demands of royalty with the need for privacy in an age when royal life was being redefined by the clamour of mass media.

Further subjects are Diana’s campaign against landmines, and the accession of Tony Blair to the role of prime minister, and his subsequent relationship with the late Queen Elizabeth II.

The final six-episode instalment of The Crown in part follows the young princes, William and Harry, and the challenges they faced in the heightened spotlight following the death of Princess Diana.

William is shown at Eton, where he chose to return to his schooling after the death of his mother in August 1997 before heading to study at the University of St Andrews in 2001, where he met Catherine Elizabeth Middleton.

Historian Tracy Borman writes that “theirs is often heralded as one of the most successful royal partnerships in history – as well as the most ordinary."

The final series of the drama also contrasts the public perception of the monarchy with the popularity of prime minister Tony Blair as the country approached the new millennium, including an event drawn from real history that saw Blair given a hostile reception by Women's Institute (WI) members, at one of the organisation’s conferences in June 2000.

As The Crown shows, his speech was not well-received; WI members heckled and slow hand-clapped the speech.

In contrast, the Queen – a long-time member of the WI and great advocate of the organisation – received a warm welcome by the ‘Jam and Jerusalem’ crowd. This historical example is not the only time viewers see modernity and tradition pitted against each other – arguably a theme that has run throughout all six series of The Crown.

One episode also tackles the death of Princess Margaret, whom the show has chosen to provide many touchstones in its portrayal of the struggles between duty and personal desire.

The events dramatised in The Crown end in 2005, a year that saw the future King Charles III marry Camilla, now Queen Consort, covering the events of the royal wedding in April 2, and also imagining the Queen's involvement in planning ‘Operation London Bridge’, the real codename for her funeral.

The final moments of the drama foreshadow the Queen’s death at Balmoral Castle on 8 September 2022 aged 96, and her funeral in 2022, an event of unprecedented scale that was watched on UK television by 29 million people.

What's the real history behind The Crown season 5?

Season 4 of the drama ended with Margaret Thatcher’s resignation, and the unravelling of the marriage between Prince Charles and Diana, Princess of Wales. The most recent season was decried by some, with royal historian Hugo Vickers saying that the fourth was “the least accurate” of the series so far.

Season 5 of The Crown took viewers into the 1990s, and well within living memory, bringing a new cast, too. Imelda Staunton stepped into the role of Queen Elizabeth II, with Jonathan Pryce as Prince Philip.

Dominic West plays Prince Charles, and Elizabeth Debicki took on the role of Diana, Princess of Wales, both pivotal roles in the drama’s chosen action; the season covered the various television interviews that the couple engaged in the 1990s, with an unidentified voice describing the media parrying as “all-out war” – with the various media projects dubbed 'the War of the Waleses' by the tabloids.

Dominic West as Charles, Prince of Wales
Dominic West as Charles, Prince of Wales, in The Crown (left). He took on the role of the prince (right) in season 5. (Images by Netflix/Getty Images)

There is dramatisation of moments such as Diana’s so-called ‘revenge dress’, as well as Diana’s infamous 1997 Panorama interview with Martin Bashir (played by Prasanna Puwanarajah).

Within weeks of the interview, as shown in the drama, the Queen suggested the couple should divorce – and quickly. Diana’s marriage to Prince Charles was dissolved in August 1996, after four years of separation.

In early episodes of season 5, there was an exploration of the Queen’s annus horribilis (horrible year), a phrase she used to describe 1992, which encompassed the fire at in Windsor Castle and the respective breakdowns in marriages of three of her children. Natascha McElhone was cast as Penelope Knatchbull – wife of Norton Knatchbull and a second cousin to Prince Charles – and the drama chose to depict Prince Philip’s friendship with Knatchbull, with whom he participated in carriage-driving competitions.

Meanwhile, Leslie Manville took on the role of the Queen’s sister Princess Margaret, who in the 1990s experienced more of the health issues already explored in previous episodes.

The next generation of royals also featured for the first time: a young Prince William was played by Dominic West’s son, Senan West, and Prince Harry by Teddy Hawley – which allowed the drama to explore the significant challenges of royal parenthood and childhoods.

As in previous seasons there were storylines from the history of those in 10 Downing Street, with Jonny Lee Miller cast as John Major (Prime Minister from 1990–97) and, bringing 18 years of Conservative government to end, Bertie Carvel as Tony Blair (Prime Minister from 1997–2007).

The final episode of the season saw Diana agreeing to a holiday with Mohamed al-Fayed, who offered the opportunity to stay on his yacht off Saint-Tropez.

In the latter episodes, Diana is portrayed as increasingly besieged by paparazzi and living a seemingly lonely existence from her base in Kensington Palace, following the end of her relationship with surgeon Hasnat Kahn.

Viewers were also introduced to Mohamed’s eldest son, Dodi (played by Khalid Abdalla) and the Harrods heir’srelationship with Kelly Fisher, a US swimwear model and aspiring actor.

Meanwhile, the relationship between Charles, Prince of Wales, and Camilla Parker-Bowles developed, with Charles seeking greater acceptance for their relationship from his family.

What’s the real history behind The Crown season 4?

Season four of The Crown covered much more recent history than previous series – bringing the royals into the 1980s – but none the less compelling for it.

Covering many events within recent memory, the fiction is constantly being fact-checked against history. “Word is the royals have rather liked The Crown so far, but this season may go down badly,” wrote Sarah Gristwood in a historian’s review of the fourth season. While the bulk of the cast from season three remained in place, two notable historical figures joined in the form of Lady Diana Spencer (Emma Corrin) and prime minister Margaret Thatcher (Gillian Anderson).

Season three took viewers up to the year 1977 and the fourth season picked up in the late 1970s, with the arrival at No 10 Downing Street of Conservative politician Margaret Thatcher, the eighth prime minister to take office during Queen Elizabeth II’s reign.

One key thread that runs through the series is the late Queen’s relationship with Mrs Thatcher. What was it really like? Their dynamic was famously strained, though Thatcher was always deferential to the monarch; as Dominic Sandbrook writes, the prime minister was “a dewy-eyed monarchist, who told an interviewer that she would have been a ‘Cavalier’ in the Civil War, and she treated the Queen with such exaggerated deference that her low curtsies became a palace joke”.

Gillian Anderson as Margaret Thatcher and Stephen Boxer as Denis Thatcher in season 4 of 'The Crown'
Gillian Anderson as Margaret Thatcher and Stephen Boxer as Denis Thatcher in season 4 of 'The Crown'. (Photo by Mark Mainz/Netflix)

Yet tensions arise as Thatcher brings the country to war over the Falkland Islands. The pair also clash over British sanctions against the apartheid regime in South Africa, and the drama also explores both the Queen and Thatcher’s lives as mothers. In reality, writes biographer Charles Moore, additional unease came from the fact that “both were women, and neither had much experience of working with women at a high level”.

The Crown S4: Olivia Colman as Queen Elizabeth II. (Photo by Getty Images)
The Crown S4: Olivia Colman as Queen Elizabeth II. (Image by Des Willie/Netflix)

Meanwhile, as the spotlights shifted ever more on to the new generation, the pressure on Prince Charles as heir apparent was brought into sharp focus as he is encouraged to find a suitable bride.

Charles first met Diana in 1977 – the prince thought her “jolly” when he visited Althorp, the Spencer estate, when he was dating Diana’s older sister, Lady Sarah. But it was in the summer of 1980, at a house party hosted by Diana’s friend Philip de Pass in New Grove, near Petworth, that Prince Charles first saw Diana Spencer as a potential girlfriend, when she expressed sympathy over the death of Lord Mountbatten, Charles’s much-loved great uncle and mentor.

After a successful weekend visiting the royal family, during which Diana passed the ‘Balmoral tests’ in the drama, Charles was prompted by his father to marry her. Though The Crown opted not to cover the ‘fairy tale’ wedding day itself, the couple’s whirlwind engagement, and the increased feelings of isolation that Diana feels as a newcomer in the family, were dramatised in detail. The series also included (following prominent trigger warnings) harrowing depictions of Diana’s struggles with an eating disorder.

“It was Diana’s tragedy,” says historian Sarah Gristwood, “to be chosen for what she did not have – experience, any sign of independent opinions – rather than for any more positive qualities.”

The Crown S4 episode guide: the real history

Much of season four covered Diana’s transformation from a shy teenager navigating her place in one of the world’s most famous families, to global icon.

“Her effect on the world remains profound and inspiring,” said actor Emma Corrin.

Elsewhere, the drama covered the first royal tour of the Prince and Princess of Wales, to Australia and New Zealand in 1983, and the birth of ‘Dianamania’. As Diana became ever more popular with the public, particularly because of her departure from tradition as a royal mother, the series is rife with depictions of Charles’s attempts to avoid being “comprehensively outshone by his incandescent young wife”. Inevitably, The Crown also explores the evolving relationship and love triangle between Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles, as the Prince of Wales becomes ever more distant from Diana.

Charles (Josh O'Connor) and Diana (Emma Corrin) in 'The Crown', left; and the real royal couple dancing in Sydney
Charles (Josh O'Connor) and Diana (Emma Corrin) in 'The Crown', left; and the real royal couple dancing in Sydney in 1983. (Images by Netflix/Des Willie and Getty Images)

Meanwhile, Helena Bonham Carter portrayed the turbulence of Princess Margaret’s life after the disintegration of her marriage to Lord Snowdon – drama which makes for uncomfortable viewing in episode 7. Season 4 explored Princess Margaret’s declining health, including an operation she underwent in 1985 to remove a portion of her left lung.

“She smoked 60 cigarettes a day with the knowledge that her father died of lung cancer at 54,” Helena Bonham Carter told Town & Country. “She had a lung removed, and she carried on smoking. She was a total addict. There was too much of her life that she was allowed to get lost inside her head, and I think that’s the unfortunate thing.”

Helen Bonham Carter as Princess Margaret in 'The Crown'
Helen Bonham Carter as Princess Margaret in 'The Crown'. (Image by Des Willie/Netflix)

Episode 7 also explored the lives of two little-known royal family members, Nerissa and Katherine Bowes Lyon, first cousins to Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret.

Elsewhere, in another standalone episode we saw the remarkable 1982 Buckingham Palace break-in, when an out-of-work painter and decorator named Michael Fagan scaled a wall of the palace and entered the Queen’s bedroom while she was sleeping. Episode 5 explored – and embellished– the story of one of the biggest royal security breaches of the 20th century.

What’s the real history behind The Crown season 3?

The first new element that viewers will have noticed in season 3 is a change of cast, with the two lead royals now played by Olivia Colman and Tobias Menzies. Helena Bonham Carter took over the portrayal of 'rebel royal' Princess Margaret, and “if Bonham Carter can capture even a fraction of her extraordinary, world-class rudeness, then audiences are surely in for a treat,” wrote Dominic Sandbrook for HistoryExtra.

The Crown
Helena Bonham Carter and Ben Daniels as Princess Margaret and her husband Lord Snowdon. (Image by Des Willie / Netflix)

A key plot line in season three explored the early relationship of Prince Charles and Camilla Shand (later Parker Bowles) – played by Josh O’Connor and Emerald Fennell respectively.

It was in the summer of 1971 when Charles, then 22, first met Camilla Rosemary Shand, wrote royal expert Marlene Koening for HistoryExtra. “A legend has been fostered that the couple were introduced at a polo match at Smith’s Lawn in Windsor, but, according to Jonathan Dimbleby’s authorised biography, The Prince of Wales (1994), the introduction was in fact made by a mutual friend, Lucia Santa Cruz, daughter of the Chilean ambassador to the United Kingdom, whom Charles had met when he was a student at Cambridge.

“It was reportedly an “instant attraction” between Charles and Camilla. During an 18-month period their friendship blossomed into a love affair.”

The Crown
The “instant attraction” between Charles and Camilla is dramatised in season three of The Crown. (Image by Des Willie / Netflix)

Aside from new romances, the series also explored Charles’s relationships with his parents, particularly his mother, as he was invested as the Prince of Wales at Caernarfon in 1969.

Olivia Colman plays Elizabeth II
Olivia Colman plays Elizabeth II in the latest season of The Crown. (Image by Sophie Mutevelian/Netflix)

Another storyline is the 1969 fly-on-the-wall documentary which followed the royal family, and hasn’t been broadcast in its entirety since the 1970s. Historian Sarah Gristwood suggests that the film might have been intended to combat late 1960s polls that indicated the public viewed the royals as an "out-of-touch anachronism".

Elsewhere, episode five explored an attempted coup to replace Prime Minister Harold Wilson, which involves Prince Philip's uncle, Lord 'Dickie' Mountbatten and Bank of England director Cecil King. Was the royal involved as much as Peter Morgan suggests in the season? Historian Andrew Lownie writes that "it’s clear Mountbatten was far more involved than he or other collaborators publicly stated". Mountbatten's political ambitions were nothing new, says Lownie, though "ultimately any evidence that his own role went any further than a few conversations remains hidden".

CAERNARVON, WALES - JULY 1: (L-R) Princess Margaret, Queen Elizabeth II and The Queen Mother is seen at the investiture of Prince Charles, Prince of Wales on July 1, 1969 in Caernarvon, Wales. (Photo by Anwar Hussein/Getty Images)
Princess Margaret, Princess Anne and the Queen Mother at the investiture of Prince Charles, Prince of Wales on July 1, 1969. (Photo by Anwar Hussein/Getty Images)
The Crown
The Crown depicts Prince Charles's investiture as the Prince of Wales. (Image by Des Willie / Netflix)

Early on in the series, viewers also bade farewell to John Lithgow's Sir Winston Churchill, and The Crown featured a few moments of the state funeral of Britain’s former prime minister and wartime hero. The 1965 event was a brilliant spectacle watched by more than 350 million people around the world. Upon Churchill’s death the Queen wrote to his widow, Clementine: “The whole world is poorer for the loss of this many-sided genius.” Contrary to myth, though, Churchill himself was not much involved in the planning of his own funeral.

Another moving episode considered the Queen’s reaction to the Aberfan disaster in 1966, when a spoil tip collapsed onto the Welsh village of Aberfan, killing 116 children and 28 adults. Meanwhile, the series depicted yet another prime minister, Labour politician Harold Wilson (played by Jason Watkins), and also explores Prince Philip’s fascination with the 1969 moon landings.

The Crown
Season 3 of The Crown depicts the Queen’s reaction to the Aberfan disaster in 1966. (Image by Des Willie / Netflix)
The Queen and Prince Philip visiting Aberfan.
The Queen and Prince Philip visiting Aberfan. 29th October 1966. (Photo by Syndication/Mirrorpix/Mirrorpix via Getty Images) The Queen and Prince Philip visiting Aberfan.

There are some episodes from this period that didn't feature, as Sarah Gristwood explains, including the 1974 abduction attempt on Princess Anne. Inevitably, dramatisations will need to take certain liberties with invention, as we will never entirely see behind the curtain of royal family life – but, Gristwood says, "writer Peter Morgan’s great strength is using what is known in order to infer what is not".

Elsewhere, the degeneration of Princess Margaret and Lord Snowdon's marriage was inevitably dramatised. Their divorce – an enormous international story – seemingly indicated one of the key themes of the series: their split was, as Dominic Sandbrook writes, “the first sign that the carefully manicured Victorian façade of the royal family was breaking apart under the pressures of the late 20th century”.

What’s the real history behind The Crown season 2?

Series two pulled no punches in putting the royal marriage at the centre of the drama right from the start. The action opened on the Royal Yacht Britannia in 1957, following Prince Philip’s royal tour. The balance of power in the relationship between the Queen and her husband is tested as Philip grows resentful over his position in the family, outranked by his young son Charles.

One of the trickiest topics addressed is Prince Philip’s rumoured marital infidelity. Throughout its second series, The Crown grappled with the question of whether the Queen’s husband – eager to escape the suffocating constraints of royal duty – was ever tempted to stray away from his wife.

Although writer Peter Morgan remains pointedly ambiguous over whether or not stories of Philip’s indiscretions are true, The Crown had the prince flirting with an attractive female journalist, attending a raucous yet secretive gentlemen’s lunch club, and using a men-only royal tour on the Britannia yacht as a chance to let his hair down.

The Crown
Tobias Menzies plays Prince Philip in the third series of The Crown. (Image by Des Willie / Netflix)

In one of the series’ most poignant moments, Elizabeth discovered a photograph of the Russian ballerina Galina Ulanova in her husband’s suitcase. A star dancer with the Bolshoi Ballet, Ulanova was generally considered to be one of the greatest ballerinas of her time. Though she really did visit London in 1956, there is no evidence that she and Philip were involved in any sort of extra-marital affair.

While a relationship with Galina Ulanova seems distinctly unlikely, Philip’s name was linked to several other women in the late 1950s and 1960s. Rumours of his infidelity served as a means of criticising his playboy antics and carefree lifestyle. However, with a distinct lack of any concrete evidence, they remain simply rumours, nothing more.

Rumours of Philip's infidelity served as a means of criticising his playboy antics and carefree lifestyle

Series two also considered Elizabeth II’s role on the world stage. In reality, the Queen met nearly a quarter of all the US presidents, but it is her encounter with the 35th president that is explored in The Crown’s second season.

In June 1961 and Britain was abuzz as John F Kennedy and his wife Jackie visited London, with an invitation to dine at Buckingham Palace. Writer Peter Morgan imagines that the visiting couple’s popularity and glamour, particularly that of the First Lady, might have caused the Queen to feel old fashioned or out-of-touch. Indeed, viewers saw Elizabeth learn of criticism uttered by Jackie Kennedy during a dinner party, in which she branded the monarchy “outdated” and the Queen “incurious”.

The Kennedys at Buckingham Palace with Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, during a banquest held in the president's honour, 1961. (Photo by Photoquest/Getty Images)
The Kennedys at Buckingham Palace with Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, during a banquest held in the president's honour, 1961. (Photo by Photoquest/Getty Images)

Although there is no evidence that the Queen was aware of such comments, there are sources that suggest the First Lady was critical of the Queen: in a 1995 memoir, American writer Gore Vidal wrote that Mrs Kennedy had reported the Queen to be “pretty heavy going”.

The Crown goes on to link the Kennedys’ visit with the Queen’s 1961 visit to Ghana, suggesting that Elizabeth went to the newly independent country partly in order to prove her worth to the presidential couple. Though the Queen did go to Ghana in 1961 (and did dance the foxtrot with Ghana’s first president, Kwame Nkrumah), her visit was more likely a diplomatic bid to maintain good relationships with the country, rather than an attempt to counter the Kennedys' disparaging comments.

20th November 1961: Queen Elizabeth II dances with Ghanaian president Kwame Nkrumah (1909 - 1972) at a farewell ball held at State House, Accra. They, and the Duke of Edinburgh, are dancing to a version of 'High Life' composed specially for the occasion and entitled 'Welcome Your Majesty'. (Photo by Central Press/Getty Images)
The Queen dances with Ghana’s first president, Kwame Nkrumah, in 1961. (Photo by Central Press/Getty Images)

Elsewhere in the series, still recovering from her failed relationship with Peter Townsend, Princess Margaret met her future husband, Antony ‘Tony’ Armstrong-Jones (Ben Daniels). In reality, the couple first met at a small dinner party given by the princess’s lady-in-waiting, Lady Elizabeth Cavendish, in 1958, but they did not ‘click’ until a few months later when one of the princess’s admirers asked for a photograph of her and arranged for Armstrong-Jones to take it. “His easy flow of chat, wit and animal high spirits intrigued Margaret and it was not long before he became part of her circle,” wrote Lord Snowdon biographer Anne de Courcy in an article for HistoryExtra.

Professional photographer Antony Armstrong-Jones, the Earl of Snowdon, watches critically as his fiancee Princess Margaret (1930 - 2002) takes a snap at the Badminton Horse Trials. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
Princess Margaret and Antony Armstrong-Jones at Badminton horse trials. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)

Their engagement, says de Courcy, was the best-kept royal secret of the last century. Very few, knew of it – certainly not the women with whom Armstrong-Jones was involved at the time, including (as shown in the series) the actress Jacqui Chan and Camilla Grinling – who was by then married to Armstrong-Jones’s best friend, Jeremy Fry. (Armstrong-Jones had also conceived a child with Grinling, born while he and Princess Margaret were on honeymoon). Though their union began with glamour, romance and a wedding at Westminster Abbey, by the end of the series, cracks in their relationship were beginning to show.

Though their union begins with glamour and romance, by the end of the series, cracks are beginning to show

In a departure from the main thrust of marital tensions that continued through the series, another episode – ‘Vergangenheit’ – revisited the Duke of York (former Edward VIII, played by Alex Jennings). The episode focused on the duke’s Nazi sympathies, revealing that he did have a relationship with Nazi high command. The duke later admitted that he had been foolish and naïve about Adolf Hitler (in an interview with an American newspaper in 1966).

The final episode of series two explored 1963–4 and the fall-out from the Profumo Affair, in which Secretary of State for War John Profumo admitted to having an improper relationship with 19-year-old model Christine Keeler. Keeler was also engaged in an affair with an attaché in the Soviet embassy in London, Commander Yevgeny Ivanov, which meant the affair was seen as a potential security breach as well as a sign of immorality. A key figure in the affair was an osteopath named Stephen Ward, who became embroiled under the accusation that he was procuring and providing young women for 'entertainment' in his society circle (he had introduced Profumo and Keeler).

Mandy Rice-Davies (left) and Christine Keeler, witnesses in the Profumo Scandal
Mandy Rice-Davies (left) and Christine Keeler, witnesses in the Profumo Scandal. (Photo by Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

There is evidence linking Ward and Prince Philip; the former had sketched the Duke of Edinburgh. However, the series drew a direct link between the two, speculating that Philip had attended a number of Ward’s society parties (indelibly linked in the public eye with immoral behaviour).

Royal historian Christopher Wilson has since commented on the plotline as a sign of the show becoming “more elastic” with the truth. This speculation on Morgan's part continued into series three, with royal art historian Sir Antony Blunt blackmailing Prince Philip with 'knowledge' of the royal's role in the Profumo affair, after Blunt was unmasked as a Soviet Spy.

What’s the real history behind The Crown season 1?

Season one of the hit Netflix series dramatized the personal and political challenges facing Queen Elizabeth II’s reign in the mid-20th century. Set across ten stylish episodes, the show explored events ranging from the wedding of Princess Elizabeth (played by Claire Foy) to Philip Mountbatten (Matt Smith) in 1947, to the final days of Winston Churchill’s (John Lithgow) premiership and the growing tensions over the Suez Canal.

Obvious from the opening frames of the show was an intent to dramatise the humanity and fallibility of often inaccessible royal figures, as viewers meet Elizabeth’s father King George VI (Jared Harris) coughing blood into a toilet bowl, foreshadowing his premature death later in the series.

The first episode takes place amid preparations for the 1947 wedding of Princess Elizabeth to Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten, RN (born Prince Philip of Greece). In a time of postwar austerity, the wedding needed to balance royal ceremony with sensitivity, as food and clothing rationing was still in effect. The British government provided Elizabeth with the 300 clothing coupons necessary for her ivory silk wedding dress, while the wedding breakfast featured partridges, which were not subject to rationing.

20th November 1947: Princess Elizabeth, and The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh at Buckingham Palace after their wedding. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh at Buckingham Palace after their wedding. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

Throughout the series, the drama is preoccupied with the balance between love and duty that has challenged so many royal couples – Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson, the Queen and Philip, Princess Margaret and Peter Townsend, Prince Charles and Camilla Shand (later Parker-Bowles).

Robert Lacey, consultant historian to the series, explained writer Peter Morgan’s process when dramatising real historical events: “There’s a whole research team of ten working full time on the series so that every single episode can be based on solid history. Peter takes his inspiration from that, then checks the scripts with people like me, as well as with the people who were actually involved in the real events – the best sources of all.”

But Lacey also allows that the history in the series is sometimes tailored, as “Peter pushes his imagination to outright invention – what you could call dramatic license, or as I would prefer to put it, dramatic underlining”.

Josh O'Connor as Prince Charles in polo attire
Josh O'Connor plays Prince Charles in the new series. (Image by Colin Hutton / Netflix)

We see such license at play in series one in the creation of Venetia Scott – a favoured secretary of Prime Minister Winston Churchill – who never existed. Fictional characters are brought in to illustrate wider themes, says Lacey. Scott features prominently in the story of the Great Smog, a week or so in December 1952 when thick air pollution descended across London. It is estimated that 6,000 people died of breathing-related diseases in London that month – more than were killed in any single month of bombing during the Blitz in the Second World War.

“The way that The Crown deals with that event dramatically,” said Lacey, “is to have Venetia Scott die, which obviously never happened, because she never existed. But her death under a bus symbolises the jarring reality which shook Churchill out of his complacency and galvanised him to help campaign, alongside Clement Attlee on a cross-party basis, for the reforms that led to Britain’s Clean Air Act of 1956.”

London during the Great Smog, a week or so in December 1952 when thick air pollution descended across the city. (Image by Bettmann/Getty Images)

Elsewhere, series one followed the nascent affair between Princess Margaret (Vanessa Kirby) and Group Captain Peter Townsend (Ben Miles), a divorced father of two.

It is not clear when they started their romance in reality; Townsend divorced in 1952, and some sources suggest that he didn’t become close to Margaret until after the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. As depicted in the drama, Margaret’s relationship with Townsend was revealed to the public when an eagle-eyed journalist spotted the princess affectionately plucking a piece of lint from Townsend’s jacket during the Queen’s coronation at Westminster Abbey in 1953.

Margaret’s relationship with Townsend was revealed when a journalist spotted the princess affectionately plucking a piece of lint from Townsend’s jacket

Viewers also saw the royal sisters coming into conflict when Elizabeth refused to permit Margaret’s marriage to Townsend, on the basis that the Church of England did not permit remarriage after divorce. This plotline is based on a real incident from the early 1950s. Despite the public showing support for the couple, in 1955 Margaret eventually gave Peter up in order to maintain her royal privileges. Although in a public statement Margaret asserted that she had “reached this decision entirely alone”, in The Crown we see the devastated princess bitterly blame the Queen for her heartbreak and begin to descend into a spiral of self-destructive behaviour.

In reality, we cannot be certain of the extent to which events caused a rift between the Windsor sisters who, despite everything, remained in close contact until Margaret’s death in 2002. Whether or not what we see on screen is an accurate reflection of what happened behind closed doors, it’s certainly a neat illustration of Elizabeth’s continued struggle to balance royal duty with family loyalty.

Princess Margaret and Peter Townsend in The Crown.
Vanessa Kirby and Ben Miles as Princess Margaret and Peter Townsend in The Crown. (© Netflix, Robert Viglasky)

The royal family’s relationship with the press was also addressed in series one, and viewers witness two moments in which great respect is shown for the monarchy’s privacy. The first takes place when the Queen is in Africa, shortly after she had become Queen. Knowing that she had just lost her father, “photographers bowed their head and put their cameras on the ground, not taking photographs. We know that happened – chapter and verse,” explains Lacey.

Later in the series, tensions rise in Elizabeth and Philip’s marriage and journalists catch a row between the two on camera. Yet at the Queen’s solemn request, they hand the footage over to her – although this didn’t necessarily happen in real life (instead, says Lacey, the journalists opened the camera themselves to expose the film and ruin the footage). It’s a dynamic that changes in series two and surely will seem all the more stark as the show approaches the ‘Diana years’, covered in series four.

3rd February 1952: Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh attend a polo match at Nyeri in Kenya, only days before the death of her father, King George VI. (Photo by Chris Ware/Keystone/Getty Images)
Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh in Kenya, days before the death of her father, King George VI. (Photo by Chris Ware/Keystone/Getty Images)

Also in the series Philip is shown as a driving influence in the modernisation of the monarchy: he’s quick to renovate Clarence House into a modern family home and, in his position at the head of the Queen’s coronation committee, is firm in pushing against tradition to create a ceremony more in keeping with the times. He succeeds in allowing the ceremony to be televised, a defining moment for many in 20th-century history across Britain and the Commonwealth.

The first series draws to a close in 1955–6 as Philip is banished to Australia for a five-month tour in a bid to settle strife in the royal marriage; the Queen grows into her role while the influence of senior statesmen such as Churchill wane, seemingly feeling out-of-step in a rapidly changing world. Anthony Eden succeeds the wartime hero as prime minister, and becomes increasingly consumed by the rising Suez Crisis.

The Crown (© Netflix, Robert Viglasky)
(© Netflix, Robert Viglasky)

Seasons 1–5 of The Crown are available on Netflix now


This article was first published in November 2019 and has since been updated


Elinor EvansDigital editor

Elinor Evans is digital editor of She commissions and writes history articles for the website, and regularly interviews historians for the award-winning HistoryExtra podcast