Netflix’s The Crown: the real history behind the royal drama

Netflix’s sumptuous royal drama The Crown has explored many hidden intricacies of the British royal family over three series so far, providing an engrossing portrait of the mid-20th century monarchy. Whether you're revisiting episodes ahead of the release of series four in November 2020, or starting the drama for the first time, here's our ultimate guide to the real history and accuracy behind the story so far…

Queen Elizabeth II visits the Welsh mining town of Aberfan in 1966 following the disaster, and actor Olivia Colman recreates the tragic scene in series three of The Crown.

What happened in the first series of The Crown?

(Note: this article contains spoilers for seasons 1–3 of The Crown)

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Season one of the hit Netflix series dramatises the personal and political challenges facing Queen Elizabeth II’s reign in the mid-20th century. Set across ten stylish episodes, the show explores events ranging from the wedding of Princess Elizabeth (played by Claire Foy) to Philip Mountbatten (Matt Smith) in 1947, to the final days of Winston Churchill’s (John Lithgow) premiership and the growing tensions over the Suez Canal.

Obvious from the opening frames of the show is an intent to dramatise the humanity and fallibility of often inaccessible royal figures, as viewers meet Elizabeth’s father King George VI (Jared Harris) coughing blood into a toilet bowl, foreshadowing his premature death later in the series.

The first episode takes place amid preparations for the 1947 wedding of Princess Elizabeth to Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten, RN (born Prince Philip of Greece). In a time of postwar austerity, the wedding needed to balance royal ceremony with sensitivity, as food and clothing rationing was still in effect. The British government provided Elizabeth with the 300 clothing coupons necessary for her ivory silk wedding dress, while the wedding breakfast featured partridges, which were not subject to rationing.

Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh at Buckingham Palace after their wedding
Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh at Buckingham Palace after their wedding. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

Throughout the series, the drama is preoccupied with the balance between love and duty that has challenged so many royal couples – Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson, the Queen and Philip, Princess Margaret and Peter Townsend, Prince Charles and Camilla Shand (later Parker-Bowles).

Robert Lacey, consultant historian to the series, has explained writer Peter Morgan’s process when dramatising real historical events: “There’s a whole research team of ten working full time on the series so that every single episode can be based on solid history. Peter takes his inspiration from that, then checks the scripts with people like me, as well as with the people who were actually involved in the real events – the best sources of all.”

But Lacey also allows that the history in the series is sometimes tailored, as “Peter pushes his imagination to outright invention – what you could call dramatic license, or as I would prefer to put it, dramatic underlining”.

Josh O'Connor as Prince Charles in polo attire
Josh O’Connor plays Prince Charles in the new series. (Image by Colin Hutton / Netflix)

We see such license at play in series one in the creation of Venetia Scott – a favoured secretary of Prime Minister Winston Churchill – who never existed. Fictional characters are brought in to illustrate wider themes, says Lacey. Scott features prominently in the story of the Great Smog, a week or so in December 1952 when thick air pollution descended across London. It is estimated that 6,000 people died of breathing-related diseases in London that month – more than were killed in any single month of bombing during the Blitz in the Second World War.

“The way that The Crown deals with that event dramatically,” says Lacey, “is to have Venetia Scott die, which obviously never happened because she never existed. But her death under a bus symbolises the jarring reality which shook Churchill out of his complacency and galvanised him to help campaign, alongside Clement Attlee on a cross-party basis, for the reforms that led to Britain’s Clean Air Act of 1956.”

London during the Great Smog
London during the Great Smog, a week or so in December 1952 when thick air pollution descended across the city. (Image by Bettmann/Getty Images)

Elsewhere, series one follows the nascent affair between Princess Margaret (Vanessa Kirby) and Group Captain Peter Townsend (Ben Miles), a divorced father of two. It is not clear when they started their romance in reality; Townsend divorced in 1952, and some sources suggest that he didn’t become close to Margaret until after the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. As depicted in the drama, Margaret’s relationship with Townsend was revealed to the public when an eagle-eyed journalist spotted the princess affectionately plucking a piece of lint from Townsend’s jacket during the Queen’s coronation at Westminster Abbey in 1953.

Margaret’s relationship with Townsend was revealed when a journalist spotted the princess affectionately plucking a piece of lint from Townsend’s jacket

We see the royal sisters coming into conflict when Elizabeth refuses to permit Margaret’s marriage to Townsend, on the basis that the Church of England did not permit remarriage after divorce. This plotline is based on a real incident from the early 1950s. Despite the public showing support for the couple, in 1955 Margaret eventually gave Peter up in order to maintain her royal privileges. Although in a public statement Margaret asserted that she had “reached this decision entirely alone”, in The Crown we see the devastated princess bitterly blame the Queen for her heartbreak and begin to descend into a spiral of self-destructive behaviour.

In reality, we cannot be certain of the extent to which events caused a rift between the Windsor sisters who, despite everything, remained in close contact until Margaret’s death in 2002. Whether or not what we see on screen is an accurate reflection of what happened behind closed doors, it’s certainly a neat illustration of Elizabeth’s continued struggle to balance royal duty with family loyalty.

Princess Margaret and Peter Townsend in The Crown.
Vanessa Kirby and Ben Miles as Princess Margaret and Peter Townsend in The Crown. (© Netflix, Robert Viglasky)

The royal family’s relationship with the press is also addressed in series one, and viewers witness two moments in which great respect is shown for the monarchy’s privacy. The first takes place when the Queen is in Africa, shortly after she had become Queen. Knowing that she had just lost her father, “photographers bowed their head and put their cameras on the ground, not taking photographs. We know that happened – chapter and verse,” explains Lacey.

Later in the series, tensions rise in Elizabeth and Philip’s marriage and journalists catch a row between the two on camera. Yet at the Queen’s solemn request, they hand the footage over to her – although this didn’t necessarily happen in real life (instead, says Lacey, the journalists opened the camera themselves to expose the film and ruin the footage). It’s a dynamic that changes in series two and surely will seem all the more stark as the show approaches the ‘Diana years’, to be covered in series four.

Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh in Kenya
Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh in Kenya, days before the death of her father, King George VI. (Photo by Chris Ware/Keystone/Getty Images)

Also in the series Philip is shown as a driving influence in the modernisation of the monarchy: he’s quick to renovate Clarence House into a modern family home and, in his position at the head of the Queen’s coronation committee, is firm in pushing against tradition to create a ceremony more in keeping with the times. He succeeds in allowing the ceremony to be televised, a defining moment for many in 20th-century history across Britain and the Commonwealth.

The first series draws to a close in 1955–6 as Philip is banished to Australia for a five-month tour in a bid to settle strife in the royal marriage; the Queen grows into her role while the influence of senior statesmen such as Churchill wane, seemingly feeling out-of-step in a rapidly changing world. Anthony Eden succeeds the wartime hero as prime minister, and becomes increasingly consumed by the rising Suez Crisis.

(© Netflix, Robert Viglasky)
(© Netflix, Robert Viglasky)

Want to know even more about the real events from history that inspired the drama? Read more from the experts at our curated page on The Crown

In the 1960s, Antony Armstrong-Jones and Princess Margaret made one of the country’s most exciting, glamorous couples. (Image by Bettmann/Getty Images)

What happened in series two of The Crown?

Series two pulls no punches in putting the royal marriage at the centre of the drama right from the start. The action opens on the Royal Yacht Britannia in 1957, following Philip’s royal tour. The balance of power in the relationship between the Queen and her husband is tested as Philip grows resentful over his position in the family, outranked by his young son Charles.

One of the trickiest topics addressed is Prince Philip’s rumoured marital infidelity. Throughout its second series, The Crown grapples with the question of whether the Queen’s husband – eager to escape the suffocating constraints of royal duty – was ever tempted to stray away from his wife.

Although writer Peter Morgan remains pointedly ambiguous over whether or not stories of Philip’s indiscretions are true, we see the prince flirting with an attractive female journalist, attending a raucous yet secretive gentlemen’s lunch club, and using a men-only royal tour on the Britannia yacht as a chance to let his hair down.

Tobias Menzies plays Prince Philip in the third series of The Crown.
Tobias Menzies plays Prince Philip in the third series of The Crown. (Image by Des Willie / Netflix)

In one of the series’ most poignant moments, Elizabeth discovers a photograph of the Russian ballerina Galina Ulanova in her husband’s suitcase. A star dancer with the Bolshoi Ballet, Ulanova was generally considered to be one of the greatest ballerinas of her time. Yet while she really did visit London in 1956, there is no evidence that she and Philip were involved in any sort of extra-marital affair.

While a relationship with Galina Ulanova seems distinctly unlikely, Philip’s name was linked to several other women in the late 1950s and 1960s. Rumours of his infidelity served as a means of criticising his playboy antics and carefree lifestyle. However, with a distinct lack of any concrete evidence, they remain simply rumours, nothing more.

Rumours of Philip's infidelity served as a means of criticising his playboy antics and carefree lifestyle

Series two also considers Elizabeth II’s role on the world stage. The Queen has met nearly a quarter of all the US presidents, but it is her encounter with the 35th president that is explored in The Crown’s second season. It’s June 1961 and Britain is buzzing as John F Kennedy and his wife Jackie are expected in London, with an invitation to dine at Buckingham Palace. Writer Peter Morgan imagines that the visiting couple’s popularity and glamour, particularly that of the First Lady, might have caused the Queen to feel old fashioned or out-of-touch. Indeed, we see Elizabeth learn of criticism uttered by Jackie Kennedy during a dinner party, in which she branded the monarchy “outdated” and the Queen “incurious”.

The Kennedys at Buckingham Palace with Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, during a banquest held in the president's honour, 1961. (Photo by Photoquest/Getty Images)
The Kennedys at Buckingham Palace with Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, during a banquest held in the president’s honour, 1961. (Photo by Photoquest/Getty Images)

Although there is no evidence that the Queen was aware of such comments, there are sources that suggest the First Lady was critical of the Queen: in a 1995 memoir, American writer Gore Vidal wrote that Mrs Kennedy had reported the Queen to be “pretty heavy going”.

The Crown goes on to link the Kennedys’ visit with the Queen’s 1961 visit to Ghana, suggesting that Elizabeth went to the newly independent country partly in order to prove her worth to the presidential couple. Though the Queen did go to Ghana in 1961 (and did dance the foxtrot with Ghana’s first president, Kwame Nkrumah), her visit was more likely a diplomatic bid to maintain good relationships with the country rather than an attempt to counter Jackie’s disparaging comments.

The Queen dances with Ghana’s first president, Kwame Nkrumah, in 1961
The Queen dances with Ghana’s first president, Kwame Nkrumah, in 1961. (Photo by Central Press/Getty Images)

Elsewhere in the series, still recovering from her failed relationship with Peter Townsend, Princess Margaret meets her future husband, Antony ‘Tony’ Armstrong-Jones (Ben Daniels). In reality, the couple first met at a small dinner party given by the princess’s lady-in-waiting, Lady Elizabeth Cavendish, in 1958, but they did not ‘click’ until a few months later when one of the princess’s admirers asked for a photograph of her and arranged for Armstrong-Jones to take it. “His easy flow of chat, wit and animal high spirits intrigued Margaret and it was not long before he became part of her circle,” wrote Lord Snowdon biographer Anne de Courcy in an article for HistoryExtra.

Princess Margaret and Antony Armstrong-Jones at Badminton horse trials.
Princess Margaret and Antony Armstrong-Jones at Badminton horse trials. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)

Their engagement, says de Courcy, was the best-kept royal secret of the last century. Very few, knew of it – certainly not the women with whom Armstrong-Jones was involved at the time, including (as shown in the series) the actress Jacqui Chan and Camilla Grinling – who was by then married to Armstrong-Jones’s best friend, Jeremy Fry. (Armstrong-Jones had also conceived a child with Grinling, born while he and Princess Margaret were on honeymoon). Though their union begins with glamour, romance and a wedding at Westminster Abbey, by the end of the series, cracks in their relationship are beginning to show.

Though their union begins with glamour and romance, by the end of the series, cracks are beginning to show

In a departure from the main thrust of marital tensions that continue through the series, another episode – ‘Vergangenheit’ – revisits the Duke of York (former Edward VIII, played by Alex Jennings). The episode focuses on the duke’s Nazi sympathies, revealing that he did have a relationship with Nazi high command. The duke later admitted that he had been foolish and naïve about Adolf Hitler (in an interview with an American newspaper in 1966).

The final episode of series two explores 1963–4 and the fall-out from the Profumo Affair, in which Secretary of State for War John Profumo admitted to having an improper relationship with 19-year-old model Christine Keeler. Keeler was also engaged in an affair with an attaché in the Soviet embassy in London, Commander Yevgeny Ivanov, which meant the affair was seen as a potential security breach as well as a sign of immorality. A key figure in the affair was an osteopath named Stephen Ward, who became embroiled under the accusation that he was procuring and providing young women for ‘entertainment’ in his society circle (he had introduced Profumo and Keeler).

Mandy Rice-Davies (left) and Christine Keeler, witnesses in the Profumo Scandal
Mandy Rice-Davies (left) and Christine Keeler, witnesses in the Profumo Scandal. (Photo by Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

There is evidence linking Ward and Prince Philip; the former had sketched the Duke of Edinburgh. However, the series draws a direct link between the two, speculating that Philip had attended a number of Ward’s society parties (indelibly linked in the public eye with immoral behaviour). Royal historian Christopher Wilson has since commented on the plotline as a sign of the show becoming “more elastic” with the truth. This speculation on Morgan’s part continues into series three, with royal art historian Sir Antony Blunt blackmailing Prince Philip with ‘knowledge’ of the royal’s role in the Profumo affair, after Blunt is unmasked as a Soviet Spy.

What real history features in series three of The Crown?

The first new element that viewers will notice from series three is a change of cast, with the two lead royals now played by Olivia Colman and Tobias Menzies. Helena Bonham Carter takes over the portrayal of ‘rebel royal’ Princess Margaret, and “if Bonham Carter can capture even a fraction of her extraordinary, world-class rudeness, then audiences are surely in for a treat,” wrote Dominic Sandbrook for HistoryExtra ahead of the series.

Helena Bonham-Carter and Ben Daniels as Princess Margaret and her husband Lord Snowdon
Helena Bonham Carter and Ben Daniels as Princess Margaret and her husband Lord Snowdon. (Image by Des Willie / Netflix)

A key plot line in series three explores the early relationship of Prince Charles and Camilla Shand (later Parker Bowles) – played by Josh O’Connor and Emerald Fennell respectively.

It was in the summer of 1971 when Charles, then 22, first met Camilla Rosemary Shand, writes royal expert Marlene Koening for HistoryExtra. “A legend has been fostered that the couple were introduced at a polo match at Smith’s Lawn in Windsor, but, according to Jonathan Dimbleby’s authorised biography, The Prince of Wales (1994), the introduction was in fact made by a mutual friend, Lucia Santa Cruz, daughter of the Chilean ambassador to the United Kingdom, whom Charles had met when he was a student at Cambridge.

“It was reportedly an “instant attraction” between Charles and Camilla. During an 18-month period their friendship blossomed into a love affair.”

The “instant attraction” between Charles and Camilla will be dramatised in series three of The Crown.
The “instant attraction” between Charles and Camilla is dramatised in series three of The Crown. (Image by Des Willie / Netflix)

Aside from new romances, the series also explores Charles’s relationships with his parents, particularly his mother, as he is invested as the Prince of Wales at Caernarfon in 1969. Another storyline is the 1969 fly-on-the-wall documentary which followed the royal family, and hasn’t been broadcast in its entirety since the 1970s. Historian Sarah Gristwood suggests that the film might have been intended to combat late 1960s polls that indicated the public viewed the royals as an “out-of-touch anachronism”.

Olivia Colman plays Elizabeth II
Olivia Colman plays Elizabeth II in the latest series of The Crown. (Image by Sophie Mutevelian/Netflix)

Elsewhere, episode five explores an attempted coup to replace Prime Minister Harold Wilson, which involves Prince Philip’s uncle, Lord ‘Dickie’ Mountbatten and Bank of England director Cecil King. Was the royal involved as much as Peter Morgan suggests in the series? Historian Andrew Lownie writes that “it’s clear Mountbatten was far more involved than he or other collaborators publicly stated”. Mountbatten’s political ambitions were nothing new, says Lownie, though “ultimately any evidence that his own role went any further than a few conversations remains hidden”.

Princess Margaret, Princess Anne and the Queen Mother at the investiture of Prince Charles, Prince of Wales on July 1, 1969
Princess Margaret, Princess Anne and the Queen Mother at the investiture of Prince Charles, Prince of Wales on July 1, 1969. (Photo by Anwar Hussein/Getty Images)
Helena Bonham-Carter and Ben Daniels in The Crown
The Crown depicts Prince Charles’s investiture as the Prince of Wales. (Image by Des Willie / Netflix)

Early on in the series, viewers also bade farewell to John Lithgow’s Sir Winston Churchill, and The Crown features a few moments of the state funeral of Britain’s former prime minister and wartime hero. The 1965 event was a brilliant spectacle watched by more than 350 million people around the world. Upon Churchill’s death the Queen wrote to his widow, Clementine: “The whole world is poorer for the loss of this many-sided genius.” Contrary to myth, though, Churchill himself was not much involved in the planning of his own funeral.

Another moving episode considers the Queen’s reaction to the Aberfan disaster in 1966, when a spoil tip collapsed onto the Welsh village of Aberfan, killing 116 children and 28 adults. Meanwhile, the series depicts yet another prime minister, Labour politician Harold Wilson (played by Jason Watkins), and also explores Prince Philip’s fascination with the 1969 moon landings.

Olivia Colman depicts the Queen’s reaction to the Aberfan disaster in 1966.
Series 3 of The Crown depicts the Queen’s reaction to the Aberfan disaster in 1966. (Image by Des Willie / Netflix)
The Queen and Prince Philip visiting Aberfan.
The Queen and Prince Philip visiting Aberfan. 29th October 1966. (Photo by Syndication/Mirrorpix/Mirrorpix via Getty Images)
The Queen and Prince Philip visiting Aberfan.

There are some episodes from this period that don’t feature, as Sarah Gristwood explains, including the 1974 abduction attempt on Princess Anne. Inevitably, dramatisations will need to take certain liberties with invention, as we will never entirely see behind the curtain of royal family life – but, Gristwood says, “writer Peter Morgan’s great strength is using what is known in order to infer what is not”.

Elsewhere, the degeneration of Princess Margaret and Lord Snowdon’s marriage is inevitably dramatised. Their divorce – an enormous international story – seemingly indicates one of the key themes of the series: their split was, as Dominic Sandbrook writes, “the first sign that the carefully manicured Victorian façade of the royal family was breaking apart under the pressures of the late 20th century”.

What can we expect from The Crown series four?

Series four of The Crown is set to cover much more recent history – bringing the royals into the 1980s – but will be none the less compelling for it.

While the bulk of the cast from series three will remain in place, two notable historical figures join in the form of Lady Diana Spencer (Emma Corrin) and prime minister Margaret Thatcher (Gillian Anderson).

Series three took viewers up to the year 1977, so the fourth series is expected to pick up in the late 1970s.As the spotlights shifts ever more on to the new generation, the pressure on Prince Charles as heir apparent will be brought into sharp focus as he is encouraged to find a suitable bride. In reality, 32-year-old Charles encountered 19-year-old Lady Diana at a weekend house party in 1980. “It was Diana’s tragedy,” says historian Sarah Gristwood, “to be chosen for what she did not have – experience, any sign of independent opinions – rather than for any more positive qualities.”

It’s expected that series four will cover Diana’s transformation from a shy teenager navigating her place in one of the world’s most famous families, to global icon. “Her effect on the world remains profound and inspiring,” said Emma Corrin. Covering Charles and Diana’s royal tour of Australia in 1983 and her first steps into motherhood (a baby Prince William is rumoured to make an appearance), series four will also explore Charles’ attempts to avoid being “comprehensively outshone by his incandescent young wife”.

Left: Emma Corrin, pictured on the set of season four of ‘The Crown’. Right: The real Princess Diana. (Photos by Netflix/Getty Images)
Left: Emma Corrin, pictured on the set of season four of ‘The Crown’. Right: The real Princess Diana. (Photos by Netflix/Getty Images)

Meanwhile, Helena Bonham Carter will portray the turbulence of Princess Margaret’s life after her marriage to Lord Snowdon – drama which is sure to make for uncomfortable viewing. “Amid rancour, public rows and extra-marital affairs Margaret and Tony’s marriage disintegrated,” writes Snowdon biographer Anne de Courcy. “She had her freezing royal stare, he was quicker-witted and more merciless; both sought comfort with others.”

Margaret’s on-screen struggles reached a dramatic climax in series three when, in the season finale, she suffers an overdose. Royal biographer Christopher Warwick confirmed that in 1974 Margaret did indeed take a heavy dose of medication while in the midst of her explosive separation from Tony. “She’d taken a handful of sleeping tablets, and it was difficult to rouse her on this particular morning,” Warwick told ELLE.com. But he dismissed the idea that the princess might have been attempting to end her life, and insists instead that Margaret “just wanted to sleep” to get away from the stresses she was facing.

Left: Helena Bonham Carter plays Princess Margaret in Netflix's 'The Crown'. Right: The real Princess Margaret. (Photos by Getty Images/Netflix)
Left: Helena Bonham Carter plays Princess Margaret in Netflix’s ‘The Crown’. Right: The real Princess Margaret. (Photos by Getty Images/Netflix)

Series four is expected to explore Princess Margaret’s declining health, including an operation she underwent in 1985 to remove a portion of her left lung. “She smoked 60 cigarettes a day with the knowledge that her father died of lung cancer at 54,” Helena Bonham Carter told Town & Country. “She had a lung removed, and she carried on smoking. She was a total addict. There was too much of her life that she was allowed to get lost inside her head, and I think that’s the unfortunate thing.”

Another aspect of the new series sure to fascinate is the exploration of the Queen’s relationship with Conservative politician Margaret Thatcher, the eighth prime minister to take office during Elizabeth II’s reign. Their dynamic was famously strained. As Francis Beckett writes for BBC History Magazine: “You may have expected the Queen to feel close to her first woman premier and the one nearest to her in age. But their relationship was not always easy and the Queen was thought to be anxious at the human cost of Thatcherism.”

Tension will surely arise as Thatcher brings the country to war over the Falkland Islands and, as biographer Charles Moore has speculated, additional unease came from the fact that “both were women, and neither had much experience of working with women at a high level”. It’s thought we’ll also see the two titans clash over the 1984–45 miners’ strike and apartheid in South Africa. We might also expect to meet President Ronald Raegan, who became president of the United States in 1981.

Left: Gillian Anderson, pictured on the set of season four of ‘The Crown’. Right: The real Margaret Thatcher. (Photos by Netflix/Getty Images)
Left: Gillian Anderson, pictured on the set of season four of ‘The Crown’. Right: The real Margaret Thatcher. (Photos by Netflix/Getty Images)

Elsewhere, expect emotional highs and lows. The royal family may be seen grieving, if the series chooses to cover the assassination of Lord ‘Dickie’ Mountbatten by the IRA in 1979. And alternately, capering, if showrunner Peter Morgan has elected to cover the 1987 charity episode of It’s a Royal Knockout, whichfamously saw the younger royals competing in costume and amid inflatables with contemporary British celebrities.

Buckingham Palace’s most famous intruder, Michael Fagan, is also expected to make an appearance in season four. In 1982 Fagan scaled a wall of the palace and wandered into the Queen’s bedroom while she was sleeping, in what is thought to be the biggest royal security breach of the 20th century.

Several cast changes have already been announced ahead of series five: Imelda Staunton will join the cast as a third iteration of Queen Elizabeth II, and Lesley Manville as Princess Margaret. Peter Morgan has confirmed that The Crown will return for two more series – the sixth will be the final instalment of the royal drama.

Elinor Evans is deputy digital editor of HistoryExtra. Series 1–3 of The Crown is available on Netflix now. Series four will be released on 15 November 2020 – watch the trailer here

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This article was first published in November 2019 and has since been updated